>> overview research
with young people and for young people
A study of the IZI in co-operation
with the Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung and Medienforschung
Bayerischer Rundfunk/ Intendanz
Young people rarely watch information
programmes on (public) television. Studies suggest that this
is mainly a result of the form of these presentations, and
the missing perspectives of young people. In this respect,
it should be a primary concern of broadcasting companies to
incorporate young people more into the design of programmes.
Journalistic acting as a chance
of political education
Similar to the 'newspaper at school' this project aims to
get students meeting professional media producers in order
to enhance media competence and political education as well
as to provide a platform from which youth may participate
in public and political discussions. The focal point hereby
becomes journalistic action, conceptualisation and co-operation
with young people and professional television- and radio-producers.
With reference to individually chosen
topics - ranging from experiences at school, via youth culture
to concrete meetings with politicians - a journalistic contribution
is planned, discussed with professionals and then carried
In this process, beginning with an
individual approach, the journalistic significance is extracted.
In any constructive argument the young people's perspective
is supposed to be dominant. At the same time, they experience
the necessity to view and display contents from different
points of view. In addition to the media competence to be
gained by the young, the aim is political education by means
of reflection and participation in public discussion. A transfer
of topics from school (e.g. final exams, full-day school,
integration classes) to the public sphere, i.e. of everyday
life topics in school (love, contraception, drugs, etc.),
By intensive evaluation, of amongst
other factors the "natural communication" during
the project's conception, an increase in knowledge about what
characterises young people's perspectives is expected. These
are significant opportunities for addressing youth and procuring
politics as well as a starting point for political education.
Description of the project:
Students in the 10th grade (Gymnasium/higher education, Realschule/secondary
education and M10/basic education) set up a concept for a
contribution, relevant to young people, for radio and television
programmes of Bavarian Broadcasting, and carry it out in co-operation
with media-professionals. In an educational unit of 6 hours
they learn the project-oriented basics of television and radio
journalism with a focus on a topic chosen by them. The sketched
contribution is discussed at an editorial meeting with a professional
broadcasting author and carried out by a camera, i.e. production
team. During the shooting of the film the students participate
either in front of the camera as actors, or as assistants
behind the camera and the microphones. This contribution will
be broadcast within the framework of "Blaateen"
(BR -alpha channel) i.e. Bayern 3 (radio). Then again, in
another school hour, youth is asked to comment critically
on the result. In the pilot project a journalist and a media
educator manage this unit in co-operation with the teachers.
The actual structure of an educational
Basic unit: in the first educational unit the students fill
in a semi-structured questionnaire, which provides them with
a first reflection of their media consumption and habits.
In the shape of a face-to-face discussion, the young people
talk individually about their favourite programmes. According
to their levels of performance, and supported by overhead-foils,
they learn something about genre concepts and programmes with
a special focus on information programmes.
In a second educational unit, the young
people are introduced to concrete (video/ radio) samples,
get to know different forms of presentation and stylistic
feasibility and discuss the relevance of these opportunities
for their individual purposes.
In the third educational unit, the students produce a concept
for their own contribution from three educational units in
total. Via a face-to-face brainstorming session, ideas are
gathered and structured later. During teamwork details of
presentation forms, styles and necessary practical questions
are worked out. The ideas are presented to the entire class.
The students present their concepts to a professional and
discuss the way to carry them out. In an event outside school,
this contribution is put into action. In addition to acting
activities, directing assistance and camera assistance are
available in co-operation with the authors. Furthermore a
trip to the BR studios (Munich-Freimann, Nuremberg, Würzburg)
for presenting the contribution is possible. The IZI staff
is organising the placements for practical work. As soon as
the contribution is ready for broadcasting i.e. broadcast,
the young people discuss their own final results again plus
the results from another class.
Building block system for tuition
A system of building blocks is available, permitting variations
in content density and social shape - referring to the class's
performance level. In addition to the six hours, an extension
of the time-scale, to days or weeks is possible, and even
desirable. Our aim is to test most different forms of putting
ideas into practice and to document them in detail. For later
planning of educational activities, the teachers are supposed
to be provided with various possibilities and practical experiences
for their tuition. The pilot project is geographically limited
to Bavaria and the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation. The
results and the expected method are likely to be put in practice
in schools all over Germany. Via the presentation of results
and already existing networks the way to a long lasting co-operation
is supposed to be opened. The starting points are therefore
public corporations, but an extension towards commercial TV
Evaluation of the project
According to the starting point of the project the accompanying
study's conceptualisation is qualitative, but also includes
quantitative procedures. Data - video investigation (during
the reception of a concrete programme), participant observation,
group discussions - are evaluated (qualitatively) in a content
analytic manner. To support the evaluation, the computer software
MaxQDA is used. The results of the semi-structured questionnaire
are evaluated in a quantitative way.
Pilot project sample:
Area around Munich, Nuremberg and Würzburg, urban and
rural areas. N= roughly 500 young people.
The aim is a classic 'win-win-situation':
The students contribute their perspectives and their concerns
to the public discussion of this subject. In terms of the
project work, media competence is supported by media criticism
and the individual designs contributed, and political action
is experienced, for instance, via an experience of journalism
and journalistic procedures. The actual participating writers/producers
of programmes learn about young people and their points of
view concerning specific topics. Based upon the evaluations,
material for adult education is developed in order to familiarise
other editors with adolescent points of view and to enhance
further co-operation with them. The schools supplement their
tuition with well-prepared, detailed and tested educational
units, which can be adapted both in content and, didactically,
in form, towards the preliminaries of the students. The pilot
project is scientifically accompanied intensely and evaluated
in detail. Via the triangulation of quantitative and qualitative
approaches knowledge about youth, their perspectives on media
content, their aesthetics etc. is gained.
In addition to the support of media literacy and political
education for the 500 participating students, and the 19 contributions
being made in co-operation with them, the outcomes of the
The publication of a book about the results of the study.
(IZI book series "Edition TELEVIZION"); educational
material for teachers/educators concerning the executive side
of more media-educational units on the subject of journalism
and politics in media and an informative homepage for teachers/educators.
Already, in preparation for these outcomes, the domains www.jugendundfernsehen.de
have been reserved, providing information and educating material
independent from the IZI as well as small tuition building
blocks for teachers concerning media preferences of youth
and helpful links.
Adult education building blocks for
editors, which consider the perspectives of young people and
the opportunities to include them into their journalistic
activities are also intended. Video clips deriving from the
project are intended to provide a better understanding of
young people's perspective in combination with textual building
Pre-phase: August to December 2002
In the pre-phase it was focused on organisational aspects
in schools, the introduction of participants (employees, authors,
teachers etc.) and the set-up of a variety of media-educational
material. Based on this, with 4 classes (3 TV-classes and
1 radio-class) the first unit was executed and pre-tests were
evaluated. Naturally the first four contributions are also
to be broadcast in the young people programme "Blaateen"
i.e. Bavarian television, Third Programme.
Project phase: January 2003 to December 2003
In this year 15 units are to be organised and carried out
with 10th graders. The 15 contributions are to be set up and
broadcast. The qualitative evaluation is set up parallel to
the investigation. The media-educational material will be
merged to the existing levels and a homepage built up.
Evaluation phase: January to July 2004
In this period of time the final evaluation will be executed,
and the reports as well as media-educational material made
ready for publication. The organisation for the project "journalism
for young people and from young people" will be set up
in the long term.
Post phase: after July 2004
The results were published in "Journalismus mit Jugendlichen für Jugendliche" (only available in German).